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Online Marketing Terms & Meanings (Part 1)

online-marketing-nurturedscills-websiteI Forgot An Appropriate Word
I was doing my regular weekly report when I was in full time employment. At a time, I got stuck with using an appropriate term. I though deep; searched my mind; looked around (as if things were written all around) tried hard yet it wasn’t coming. So I swallowed my pride and decided to ask a colleague about the appropriate word for something you cannot do without. One, two, and on the third attempt he got the word “inevitable” Yes! That’s the right word. I was so relieved and excited. Silly me, how could I have forgotten such a word –a knock on my head abi?

Ever Been In A Situation Where You Forgot The Appropriate Word?
How many of us usually forget the appropriate word to use when writing or even making a speech? Do I have a witness in the house or I’m all alone in this ship?
To take it further, we also use words or terms we don’t even have the slightest idea what their meanings are. Some people in order to show off their English speaking prowess, overuse terms that eventually gets people more confused than their earlier state of not even understanding what you’re saying. This ought not to be so. Words should be friendly and relational. Words shouldn’t be too hard to understand if properly explained.

The More You Understand The Language Of Online Marketing, The More You Want To Be A Better Marketer. You need to find ways of making these words friendly. I like to make difficult words my friend by using them to make fun so I can get better grips with understanding them better. Words are powerful, knowing their meanings and applying them are even more awesome.

Use The Language Of The Rich And You Will Be Rich, Use The Language Of Successful Online Entrepreneurs And Before Long You’ll Be A Huge Online Business Success. This may sound off our topic, but do kindly permit me to chip this in: Robert Kiyosaki said if you use the words or languages of the rich you will in the very near future become rich why? The words you speak soon become flesh and transforms into your reality. For instance if you use words like “pay per click” and you understand what it means, you have better grip at your online marketing budget. Understanding words like “click through rate, CTR, will make you better understand the ratios, in percentages, of people who actually are becoming your subscribers. Words like “bounce rate” will get you concerned about why people are leaving your website without taking any desired action. Ok that’s enough! Let’s kuku ma bounce into the main thing.

Some Popular Online Marketing Terms & Meanings
301 Redirect – A 301 redirect automatically causes one url to redirect to another and tells the Web (and search engines) that this redirect is permanent, as opposed to a temporary (302) redirect. 301 redirects are generally preferable for Search Engine Optimization purposes and are therefore often referred to as search engine friendly redirects. For instance a 301 Redirect might direct a website with jofos.net to jofosindustries.com and that link shows that the permanent address of jofos.net is now jofosindustries.com

404 Server Code – The 404 or Not Found error message is a standard response code indicating that the client was able to communicate with a given server, but the server could not find what was requested. For example, an “Index.html” files may not be found on your server just because the initial letter is in capitals instead of small letters.

Above the Fold – The part of the page you can see without scrolling down or over. The exact amount of space will vary by viewer because of screen settings. You often pay a premium for advertisement placements above the fold, which will add to the costs of internet marketing services, but may also add to results. In standard online marketing practice, you are told to put all your very important elements “above the fold.”

AdCenter – Microsoft adCenter powers paid search results on Microsoft’s bing, Yahoo! (as of November 2010), and other sites within its network. Microsoft adCenter is now the second largest paid search provider in the United States. Guess who the first is? Google’s adWords ofcourse.

Advertising Network – A group of websites where one advertiser controls all or a portion of the ads for all sites. A common example is the Google Search Network, which includes AOL, Amazon, Ask.com (formerly Ask Jeeves), and thousands of other sites. In Google AdWords, they offer two types of ad networks on the internet: search and display (which used to be called their content network). In simple terms, Google controls a lot of other sub search engines we have today.

AdWords – AdWords is Google’s paid search marketing program, the largest such program in the world and in most countries with notable exceptions such as China (Baidu) and Russia (Yandex). Introduced in 2001, AdWords was the first pay per click provider offering the concept of Quality Score, factoring search relevancy (via click-through rate) in along with bid to determine ad position. It is an advertising platform on Google where you have the opportunity of setting your advert content and determining how much you want to pay when people click your advert.

Affiliate Marketing – When you have an affiliate marketing relationship with a company or an individual, you may want to recommend or sell their products or services on your own website and get a commission on each sale or referral. A type of internet marketing in which you partner with other websites, individuals, or companies to send traffic to your site. You will typically pay on a Cost per Acquisition (CPA) or Cost per Click (CPC) basis.

Algorithm – The term search engines use for the formulae they use to determine the rankings of your Natural Listings. Search engines will periodically send a Spider through your website to view all its information. Their programs analyze this and other data to value your site and fix whether or not, and how high or low pages on your site will appears on various searches. These algorithms can be very complicated (Google alone currently uses 106 different variables) and search engines closely guard their algorithms as trade secrets. There are calculations done to rank your website high or low on search engines.

ALT Tags – HTML tags used to describe website graphics by displaying a block of text when moused-over. Search engines are generally unable to view graphics or distinguish text that might be contained within them, and the implementation of an ALT tag enables search engines to categorize that graphic. Business websites will all be required to utilize ALT tags for all pictures to comply with certain disabilities in users.

Google Analytics – Also known as Web Metrics. Analytics refers to collection of data about a website and its users. Analytics programs typically give performance data on clicks, time, pages viewed, website paths, and a variety of other information. The proper use of Web analytics allows website owners to improve their visitor experience, which often leads to higher ROI for profit-based sites.

Anchor Text – The clickable words of a hypertext link; they may appear as the underlined blue part in standard Web design (this is in default mode and can be styled by CSS). In the preceding sentence, “hypertext link” is the anchor text. As with anything in SEO, it can be overdone this would lead to penalizing your website.

Astroturfing – The process of creating fake grassroots campaigns. Astroturfing is often used specifically regarding review sites like Google Places, Yelp, Judy’s Book and more. These fake reviews can be positive reviews for your own company or slander against your competitors. Not a good idea.

Backlinks– Links from other websites pointing to any particular page on your site. Search engines use backlinks to judge a site’s credibility; if a site links to you, the reasoning goes, it is in effect vouching for your authority on a particular subject. Therefore, Link Building is an incredibly important part of Search Engine Optimization. How many links, the quality of the sites linking to you, and how they link to you all are important factors. Also called Inbound Links.

Baidu– Serving primarily China, Baidu is the largest non-US based search engine in the world (although it was started in the United States). Sites can be optimized for Baidu and they offer their own paid search service.

Banned – When pages are removed from a search engine’s index specifically because the search engine has deemed them to be violating their guidelines. Although procedures are starting to loosen up somewhat, typically a search engine will not confirm to you that your site has been banned or why it has been banned. If you knowingly did something against the rules (written or unwritten) that got your site banned, you can probably clean up your act and get back in the game. We hear stories, though, from time to time of companies hiring Search Engine Optimization companies that deliver great, fast results, leave town, and then their website mysteriously disappears from the rankings. Google won’t tell them why their site got banned, so the company ends up left out in the cold unless another company can come in and backwards engineer the issues, unravel the work, and get the search engine to reinclude the site. Remember: Think long term in anything you’re doing online.

Banners – Picture advertisements placed on websites. Such advertising is often a staple of internet marketing branding campaigns. Depending upon their size and shape, banner ads may also be referred to as buttons, inlines, leaderboards, skyscrapers, or other terms. When using specifics, banner ads refer to a 468×60 pixel size. Banner ads can be static pictures, animated, or interactive. Banner ads appear anywhere on a site – top, middle, bottom, or side. Banner costs vary by website and advertiser; two of the most popular pay structures are Cost per 1,000 Impressions (CPM) and flat costs for a specified period of time.

Behavioral Targeting (BT) An area of internet marketing becoming increasingly refined. Behavioral targeting looks to put ads in front of people who should be more receptive to the particular message given past web behavior, including purchases and websites visited. The use of cookies enables online behavioral targeting.

Bing – Bing is Microsoft’s search engine, which replaced live.com in June 2009. Bing results now power Yahoo!’s search for paid (except display; through Microsoft adCenter) and organic (except local listings) through an alliance entered into between the two Web giants in December 2009. The deal cleared regulatory concerns in early 2010 and was fully completed in November of the same year.

Black Hat SEO – The opposite of White Hat SEO which is Black Hat SEO, are tactics attempted at tricking the Search Engines to get better rankings for a website. If not immediately, using black hat methods will eventually get your site drastically lower rankings or banned from the search engines altogether. While there are completely legal and ethical techniques you can use to improve rankings, if you design and market a website mostly for humans and not for the search engines’ Spiders, you should be okay.

Blog – Short for Web log, blogs are part journal, part website. Typically the newest entry (blog post) appears at the top of the page with older entries coming after in reverse chronological order. Several blogging platforms exist the world’s favorite for now is WordPress.

Brand Stacking – Multiple page one listings from a single domain. Prior to 2010, a site would be fortunate if it had three first page results for branded searches. Since Google tweaked its algorithm to include Brand Stacking, that number has risen to as many as eight of the top search rankings. The focus then here is your brand as I shared ealier in this blog.

Categories – Words or phrases used to organize blog posts and other pieces of information, such as albums for photos. Categories are generally broader than tags and used in instances when there will generally be multiple posts or other data points per category. The categories of your website should be relevant to your niche so you don’t go talking about carpentry when your website is all about design.

ccTLD – ccTLD’s are “Country-code” TLD‘s showing what country a site is focused on or based in. Using Google and the United Kingdom as an example, Google UK is google.co.uk. Sometimes these ccTLD’s are two sets of letters separated by a period (e.g. “co.uk” for the UK or “com.au” for Australia) and sometimes they are just one set of letters (e.g. “.fr” for France).

Use of separate websites on unique ccTLD’s is typically viewed as the best way for exporters to target other countries via search engine optimization. However, site owners can also target outside countries through other means such as through country-focused subdomains or even subdirectories.

If you are aquainted with this term, you get to focus your online marketing more on people who are your best customers preferably within your country or geographical definition.

Click through Rate (CTR) – Number of clicks / Number of impressions. Click through rate is a common internet marketing measurement tool for advert effectiveness. This rate tells you how many times people are actually clicking on your ad out of the number of times your ad is shown to them. Low click through rates can be caused by a number of factors, including interests, copy, placement and relevance.

Cloaking – This means showing a search engine spider or bot one version of a web page and a different version of same to the end user. Several search engines have explicit rules against unapproved cloaking. Those violating these guidelines may find their pages penalized or banned from a search engine’s index. As for approved cloaking, this generally only happens with search engines that offer a paid inclusion program. Anyone offering cloaking services should be able to demonstrate explicit approval from a search engine for what it is they intend to do. Why would anyone want to cloak?

Content Management System, CMS – Are online web applications that allows website owners to make multimedia changes, updates, edits to their websites without specialized programming knowledge of software like Adobe Dreamweaver or Microsoft FrontPage. Content Management Systems can be edited by anyone with basic word knowledge via an internet connection. No need for length or costly web development contracts or need to wait on someone outside your company to make changes. CMS examples include WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla.

Content Network – Each major search engine offers a form of content network within its paid search interface, typically referred to as content networks, although Google just renamed their content network the Google Display Network.

Content Tags – HTML tags which define the essence of the content contained within them and readable by search spiders. These include Header and Alt Tags.

Contextual Advertising – A feature offered by major search engine advertisers allowing your advertisement to be placed next to related news articles and on other web pages. Contextual advertising seeks to match Web content from the display page with your advertised search term(s). Contextual advertising isn’t perfect (what in life is?), but it’s come a long way from its inception to the point where it can provide great value to advertisers when used correctly.

Conversion Rate – This statistic or metric, tells you what percentage of people is converting (really i.e. becoming your real customers or subscribers. The definition of “conversion” depends upon your goals and measurements. It could mean a sign up for free information, a completed survey, a purchase made or other.

Cookie – Think of cookies like Batman’s Bat Tracer. When you visit a website, Batman sticks a cookie on your browser to follow you around. Batman can then go back to his Bat Cave and watch where you’re going and where you’ve been. A little Big Brother-ish to be sure, but cookies also provide direct benefits to surfers, including remembering passwords and bringing you offers in which you are genuinely interested.

Cost Per Acquisition (CPA) – An online advertising cost structure where you pay per an agreed upon actionable event, such as a lead, registration, or sale.

Cost per Click (CPC) – A common way to pay for search engine and other types of online advertising, CPC means you pay a pre-determined amount each time someone clicks on your advertisement to visit your site. You usually set a top amount you are willing to pay per click for each search term, and the amount you pay will be equal or less to that amount, depending on the particular search engine and your competitors’ bids. Also referred to as Pay Per Click (PPC) or Paid Search Marketing.

Cost per Impression (CPM) – A common internet marketing cost structure, especially for banner advertising. You agree to pay a set cost for every 1,000 Impressions your ad receives. Search engine marketing may involve CPM costs for Contextual Advertising. This internet advertising pay structure should really be called Cost per 1,000 Impressions.

Crawler – Component of a search engine that gathers listings by automatically “crawling” the Web. A search engine’s crawler (also known as a Spider or robot) follows links to Web Pages. It makes copies of those pages and stores them in a search engine’s index.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) – Software solutions that help enterprise businesses manage customer relationships in an organized way. An example of a CRM is Aweber or Mailchimp having a database containing detailed customer information that management and salespeople can reference in order to match customer needs with products, inform customers of service requirements, etc.

Day Parting – Day parting refers to serving ads at different times of the day and days of the week, or even changing bids or copy / creative at different times. For example, you may not want your ads to show from 11AM-2PM on Tuesdays. This can be done manually in most online platforms, or automatically in some such as Google AdWords. Automated day parting is not currently available directly through many social media advertising platforms such as Facebook ads and LinkedIn direct ads.

Delisting – When pages or whole websites are removed from a search engine’s index. This may happen because, but not necessarily, they have been banned or discovered as playing pranks with the system.

Description Tags – HTML tags which provide a brief description of your site that search engines can understand. Description tags should contain the main keywords of the page it is describing in a short summary – don’t go crazy here with keyword stuffing, just be as natural as possible.

Directories – A type of search engine where listings are gathered through human efforts rather than web crawling. In directories, websites are often reviewed, summarized to a brief description and placed in a relevant category.

Domain Name – A website’s main address e.g www.nurturedscills.net

Doorway Page – A Web page created to rank well in a search engine’s organic listings (non-paid) and delivers very little information to those viewing it. Instead, visitors will often only see a brief call to action (i.e., “Click Here to Enter”), or they may be automatically propelled past the doorway page. With cloaking, they may never see the doorway page at all. Several search engines have guidelines against doorway pages, though they are more commonly allowed through paid inclusion programs. Also referred to as bridge pages, gateway pages and jump pages and not to be confused with Landing Pages. With some websites, you see them before the main home page.

Domain Name Monitoring – Watching Domains across various extensions. Some companies offer to do this for, say a .com site by checking the same domain name in .net, .org, .eu, etc. This is done to avoid brand theft or spamming.

eCommerce – The ability to purchase online. eCommerce also goes by other super-snazzy names like etail (culled from the word retail but this time electronic “tail”). Website features that allow ecommerce are commonly called shopping carts.

EdgeRank – The algorithm Facebook uses to rank a page’s or profile’s posts to determine which of those posts will appear in the newsfeeds of users connected to those pages and profiles (or pages and profiles tagged in the posts). The higher an EdgeRank, the more likely you will appear in the newsfeeds. Facebook does not release this data publicly, neither for the pages, nor individual posts.

Ego Keyword – A keyword an individual or organization feels it must rank for in either or both natural listings or paid search results regardless of cost and Return on Investment.

Email Campaign System – Email is perhaps the most overlooked and underutilized (based on cost and effectiveness) form of internet marketing today. Email campaign systems allow organizations to send out emails to their email lists with a standard look and feel. Features often include the ability to segment lists. It is a powerful marketing tool that thrives on long term relationship.

Enhanced Bidding – A feature specific to Google AdWords. When you select to utilize enhanced bidding, you’re giving AdWords the power to adjust your bidding in order to increase conversions. With this feature, you can pay up to 30% over the keyword bid that you set. Think of it like a hybrid between CPC and CPA bidding, albeit still more heavily weighted toward cost per click. Be careful with enhanced bidding – many search engine marketers will tell you that they have had poor experiences with cost per acquisition bidding within AdWords. It is usually expensive and you may not get the results intended in the short term unless you have a huge budget for the investment.

Eyetracking – A process that allows testing of websites for usability or any other purpose. Eyetracking is performed by a small number of companies utilizing high speed cameras to monitor and record where the eyes of test subjects actually move on screen.

Facebook Retargeting – While this term can also refer to other forms of retargeting, it is most often used to mean serving ads to prior site visitors while those visitors are on Facebook. Facebook opened its ad exchange in December 2012 to allow partners to offer Facebook retargeting.

Feed – feed buttonComing in an XML language that uses either RSS or Atom formatting are an extremely popular way for organizations to get their messages through the clutter and into the hands of interested parties. With the simple click of an orange button (right), users can stay connected to a site’s content (Blogs, news, podcasts, etc.) automatically anytime their computers are connected to the internet. That button will connect you to the feed for the found blog or website.

Forum – A place on the internet where people with common interests or backgrounds come together to find information, share challenges and discuss topics.

Geo-Targeting – The ability to reach potential clients by their physical location. The major search engines now all offer the ability to geo-target searches in their Pay-Per-Click campaigns by viewing their ip addresses. Geo-targeting allows advertisers to specify which markets they do and don’t want to reach.

Golden Triangle – Eye-tracking studies show an “F” shaped pattern that most people tend to look at most often when looking at search engine results pages. These patterns vary slightly among the different search engines, but show the importance of placement among natural listings and pay-per-click ads.

Google AdWords – This offers the most extensive certification process of any of the paid search marketing providers. The Google AdWords Certified Partner program replaces the earlier Qualified Google Advertising Company / Individual program. On this platform, you can set your advert campaigns to run as long as your budget can take.

Graphical Search Inventory – Banners and other types of advertising units which can be synchronized to search keywords. Includes pop-ups browser toolbars and rich media.

Header (or Heading) Tags () – HTML heading and subheading tags are critical components of search engine marketing, as often times both are graphical, thereby unreadable to search engine spiders. Optimally, page titles should also be included to clearly define the page’s purpose and theme. All of the header tags should be used according to their relevance, with more prominent titles utilizing <h1>, subheaders using <h2>, and so on.

HTML– HyperText Markup Language, the programming language used in websites. Developers use other languages that can be read and understood by HTML to expand what they can do on the web. Fundamentally, HTML is the foundation for the web.

Hyperlink – Often blue and underlined, hyperlinks, commonly called “links” for short, allow you to navigate to other pages on the Web with a simple click of your mouse. This hyperlink takes you to a page with more information about Direct Online Marketing™’s free consultations.

Image Maps – Clickable regions on images that make links more visually appealing and websites more interesting. Image maps enable spiders to “read” this material.

Impressions – The number of times someone views a page displaying your ad. Note that this is not the same as actually seeing your ad, making placement and an understanding of the site’s traffic particularly important when paying on a Cost per 1,000 Impressions basis.

 Inbound or Incoming Links – See Backlinks above.

Index – The index page is usually the first or better still the home page of any website. That is what web crawlers find first if there is no specific page on the website dictated. Usually, it contains the summaries of all the web pages on a particular website.

Internet Marketing – Any of a number of ways to reach internet users, including Search Engine Marketing, Search Engine Optimization, Search Engine Advertising like Google Adwords, Social Media Advertising like Facebook ads, Banner advertising etc.

Internal Linking – Placing hyperlinks on a page to other page(s) within the same site. This helps users find more information, improve site interaction, and enhances your SEO efforts.

Interstitial – An ad that appears between two pages a person is trying to view. The ad often appears near a hyperlink allowing someone to quit viewing your ad and go directly to the page he or she originally tried to access.

JavaScript – JavaScript – not to be confused with its distant cousin Java – is an Object Oriented Programming language developed by NetScape. It is used primarily to improve user experiences on websites with enhanced functionality.

Keyword – Almost interchangeable with Search Term, keywords are words or a group of words that a person may search for in a Search Engine like Google, Bing, Yahoo etc. Keywords also refer to the terms you bid on through search engine marketing in trying to attract visitors to your website or landing page. Part of a successful Search Engine Optimization is including keywords in your website headline, copy, body text and meta tags.

Keyword Stuffing – Is a strategy (old now) of filling up your website pages with high search keywords on your header section (Title, Description and Keywords) to deceive search engines even while your website is totally irrelevant to such terms.
In some time past, some smart website owners realized that the search engine algorithms (working formula) really liked some keyword rich meta tags. So they started stuffing a bunch of keywords, often with high search volumes and no relevancy to the site, into title, description, and keyword tags. Sites instantly rocketed to great search engine result pages,SERPs. Soon thereafter the search engines changed their ranking formulae and the sites lost their positions or were outrightly banned. This, today, as I earlier mentioned, is a spam strategy that won’t work one bit so please don’t try it.

Keyword Tags – HTML tags which define the keywords used on web pages. Meta keyword tags used to carry great weight with some older search engines until they caught up with the spammers using this practice and modified their algorithms. Today, Google is officially on record for not giving these tags any weight.

Landing Page – The first page a person sees when coming to your website from an advertisement. This page can be any page on your website including your home page. Almost anytime you direct someone to your website from an advertisement, you should send them to a specialized landing page with tailored information to increase your landing page conversion rate. Radio advertisements are a notable exception as spelling out specific URL‘s can be time consuming and difficult to remember.

Link Building – The process of obtaining hyperlinks (links) from websites back to yours. Link building is a crucial part of Search Engine Optimization and Google no dey play with am.

Link Popularity – How many websites link to yours, how popular those linking sites are, and how much their content relates to yours. Link popularity is an important part of Search Engine Optimization, which also values the sites that you link out to.

Local Search – A huge and growing portion of the search engine marketing industry. Local search allows users to find businesses and websites within a specific (local) geographic range. This includes local search features on search engines and online yellow page sites. Optimizing for local search requires different practices than for traditional Search Engine Optimization.

Local Business Listings – Each of the major search engines offer local business listings that appear next to maps at the top of the page on many locally targeted searches. Business may either submit new requests or claim existing local business listings if the search engines have already added the company to the results. Having a website is not required for having a local business listing.

Long Tail Keywords – Rather than targeting the most common keywords in your industry, you can focus on more niche terms that are usually longer phrases but are also easier and quicker to rank for in the search engines. Long tail keywords can amount for up to 60% or so of a site’s search traffic. Bottom-line? Be as natural as possible with your use of keywords that you target.

Meta Search Engine – A search engine that gets listings from two or more other search engines rather than crawling the web itself.

Meta Tags (see also keyword tags, description tags etc.) – Meta tags allow you to highlight important Keywords related to your site in a way that matters to Search Engines, but that your website visitors typically do not see. Meta tags have risen and fallen in terms of valuation by internet marketers and search engines alike (see Keyword Stuffing), but they still play an important role in Search Engine Optimization. Examples of meta tags include Header Tags and Alt Tags.

Microblogging – Microblogging refers to platforms allowing you to post information in snippets of 140 characters at a time via phone or Web. Twitter quickly became the dominant global player to the point where its name is synonymous with microblogging. In China, however, there are other popular microblogging services, generically called weibo.

Mobile Marketing– As cell phone technology advances, advertisers can now reach their target audience virtually anywhere. While mobile marketing is really just an extension of online marketing, it provides businesses many new opportunities and challenges. How does your website look on Smart Phones, Tablets etc? You must go responsive.

Natural Listings – Also referred to as “organic results”, the non-advertised listings in Search Engines. Some search engines may charge a fee to be included in their natural listings, although most are free. How high or low your website is ranked depends on many factors, two of the most important being content relevance and link popularity .

Naver – Naver is Korea’s largest search engine and Web property. They offer paid search programs, although their pay per click program for non-Korean marketers has primarily been offered through Yahoo! / Overture – Korea. Naver’s closest Korean competitor is Daum.

Opt-in –The word here opt means its actually optional to join in or not to. This type of registration requires a person submitting information, usually name, email and maybe phone number to specifically request he or she be contacted or added to a list. Opt-ins produce higher percentages of truly interested leads.

Opt-out –Here people are automatically signed up to receive contact, but can opt out of receiving newsletters, calls, etc. at any time. Remember it‘s an option.

Organic Listings –See Natural Listings.

Outbound Links – Links on any Web page leading to another Web page, whether they are within the same site or another website. You can see it as a link you place on your website linking or referring the user to some other web page(s)/resources outside your website.

PageRank – PageRank is a value that Google assigns for pages and websites that it indexes, based on all the factors in its algorithm. Google does release an external PageRank scoring pages from 1-10 that you can check for any website, but this external number is not the same as the internal PageRank Google uses to determine search engine results. All independent search engines have their own version of PageRank.

Paid Inclusion – Advertising program where pages are guaranteed to be included in a search engine’s index in exchange for payment, though no guarantee of ranking well is typically given. For example, Looksmart is a directory that lists pages and sites, not based on position but based on relevance. Marketers pay to be included in the directory, on a CPC basis or a per-URL fee basis, with no guarantee of specific placement.

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